Cervical cancer is largely preventable by having regular Pap tests. About one half of cervical cancer cases occur in women who have never had a Pap test. Certain strains of the human papilloma virus (HPV), a sexually transmitted disease, cause the majority of cervical cancer. It often takes several years for cervical cancer to develop. During this time, the cells on or around the cervix become abnormal. The early cell changes that occur before cancer is present are called dysplasia or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The Pap test, sometimes called cervical cytology screening, checks for abnormal cell changes of the cervix. This allows early treatment so the abnormal cells do not become cancer. The most important risk factors for developing cervical cancer is Infection with types of HPV related to cancer, having multiple sexual partners, smoking, decreased immunity, and personal history of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia ( CIN). Early cervical cancer may not have symptoms. Early symptoms may include a continuous vaginal discharge, abnormal bleeding, and changes in your period patterns. A biopsy is necessary to correctly diagnose cervical cancer. There are several surgical options to treat early cervical cancer for example Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP) or conization. For more advanced stages of cervical cancer, the uterus and other pelvic organs may need to be removed. Finally radiation and chemotherapy are used for advanced stages with or without surgery. Cervical cancer can be prevented by early detection of precancerous cells. Precancerous cells are 100% curable.